Monism : only one substance exists.
For materialism, this substance is matter.
Dualism : two substances exists : matter & mind
or spiritualist monism : only mind exists.
|Man can be known or described by only matter.||Man does not consist of only matter.|
|Absence of beliefs in "supernatural", atheism.||Beliefs : God, soul, next world, reincarnation, superstitions, supernatural systems of explanation...|
|Man has an illusion of autonomy. He is subjected to determinism or random.||Man is autonomous or free.|
|Self-consciousness is an illusion that is generated by the complexity of the organization of matter.||Soul is autonomous.|
Absence of meaning to life.
Man fixes itself his own finality: humanity, for example.
|Spiritual finality often of divine origin.|
|Man, as an animal like another, is a part of nature.||Man dominates nature.|
|Man is a product of evolution.||Creationism.|
|What are called "mysteries" are only questions unsolved by sciences.||There are mysteries that the human reason cannot and will never be able to solve.|
|Our ignorance must be accepted.||Ignorance is transformed into transcendence "stopgap" or substitute, like God.|
|Priority is given to the research of the "how".||Priority is given to the research of the "why".|